The facial deformity is also known as a craniofacial anomaly (CFA). Face deformity seen in the face is due to a deformity in the skull bones and in the tissues of the face.
With today’s advances in technology, there is much treatment available to cure face deformity. Surgeries are usually done for this treatment. With surgery available, it does not only treat this kind of deformity but can also be used for a facial makeover latest trends.
Common facial deformities
- Cleft lip and/or cleft palate
- Hemifacial microsomia
- Craniosynostosis Syndromes
- Abnormal skull shapes
- Pierre Robin Sequence
Causes of facial deformity
It is said that there is no one cause for CFA, it’s a multifactorial disease and several causes contribute to the manifestation of a CFA. It’s usually a part of a syndrome or other congenital anomaly.
The most common cause of CFA is a genetic condition passing down or genetic mutation/s. The baby receives the genes or genetic material from the mother and father. Genetic conditions can pass down from the mother and/or father and mutations can occur during the fertilization period, conception period, cell division period and even after weeks of conception. Usually, a congenital abnormality occurs during the fertilization or early pregnancy period where the cells are rapidly multiplying and organizing into organs.
- Environmental factors
Exposure to environmental factors may play a role in the development of CFA, especially when exposed during the first three months of the pregnancy. The exact environmental factors and how it affects the embryo is unknown. Maybe CFA is the manifestation of a genetic mutation and environmental exposure.
- Folic acid deficiency
Folic acid belongs to the vitamin B group. Women with reduced folic acid levels tend to get babies with congenital anomalies such as cleft lip and/or cleft palate.
A baby with CFA should be examined and evaluated by a qualified craniofacial team to determine if treatment is needed if needed then what is the best treatment option. This team should include a Paediatrician, Craniofacial Plastic Surgeon, Neurosurgeon, ENT specialist, and other specialists. Some of the CFA doesn’t need any treatment as they resolve on its own with time. There are several types of treatment methods:
- Non-surgical treatment or minor surgical procedures
- Nasoalveolar molding for cleft lip and cleft palate
- Special teats for children with cleft palate until surgery
- Surgical treatment
Most of the CFA needs surgical treatment, the timing, type and extension of the surgery depends on the baby’s condition. The doctors will decide when and what type of surgery should be done. There are different types of surgical methods for different CFA types.